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{Reprinted by permission, from the Fifth Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, 1904. ]





The first Michigan Flora entitled a “Catalogue of the Phenogamous and Vascular Cryptogamous Plants of Michigan, Indigenous, Naturalized

_and Adentive,” was prepared by Charles F. Wheeler and Erwin F. Smith, and was printed in the report of the Michigan State Horticultural Society for 1880.

The second Michigan Flora, based on the first, was prepared by W. J. Beal and C. F. Wheeler and was printed in the report of the Michigan State Board of Agriculture for 1892. Of the second Michigan Flora one

thousand. separates were printed for distribution and the supply was exhausted in less than five years.

The copies of all the former edition of this Flora were distributed chiefly among botanists of all grades from Professors in Universities

- and Golleges, Normal Schools, teachers in High Schools, Academies and among amateurs. It is believed that this edition notwithstanding all its defects, will encourage many to study the wild plants of Michigan not forgetting the arrivals from other countries. Besides assisting the student in becoming familiar with names of species and their distribu- tion, it should be useful in other respects.

Within the past few years a delightful department of botany as attracted much attention. It is emphatically outdoor work and is known as Ecology or the relations of plants to their environment.

This Flora may help the student in his investigations of plant groups

or plant associations, noting those peculiar to certain kinds of soi]. and others growing almost everywhere. It will aid in listing natives and

_ exotics. Students can make many lists, such as those forming rosettes, those that climb, those that thrive in the woods in early spring, those that grow in strata or layers above each other or in zones within and

without each other. It should aid in the study of plant dispersal by all sorts of methods and in the multitude of ways by which plants pr are themselves.

The following is a list of the chapters found in the last edition of fhe Flora that are omitted in this edition:

. Planting the Roadside and about the Home. Planting a Grove.

-- Planting a Wild Garden.

Autumn Foliage. 4

Native Trees and Shrubs selected for the Color of their Leaves in Autumn. Native small Trees and Shrubs distinguished for their Fiowers.

Native Shrubs or Trees distinguished for their beautiful Fruit.

A list of native Trees and Shrubs distinguished for their showy or brilliant

colored Bark.


Gray’s Manual, the latter are also inserted in the text. The species of each ‘genus are arranged in alphabetical.order. To economize space a considerable number of sections of the Flora last prepared have been omitted or much abbreviated.

In the preparation of this Flora thanks are due to Professor C, F. Wheeler, O. A. Farwell, Prof. C. A. Davis, C. K. Dodge, C. D. McLouth, G. M. Bradford, J. B. Dandeno.

W. J. BEAL. Agricultural College, Mich., Dec. 1, 1904.


Bibliography............. giecees Brae A ERR tet Sha ates ered 9 Miler bad -CONSUILEM sc kis face ees Wheat ckco dence Pa teae ch ote Sbtaiar raat ede 10 ae Me Ea BLOC Un raid, tie eo Sead Ore AIS cp cia reece S hea ke dene 11 “DYMO SEI as eighty Cech BAG LG PCM nL oO UU ey Be aes 11 Seer sO Se EL OULLORE: £ aycco Aisi shal tel2e's vials Sales, dean TSA sia cae os Suan eaceneaten 13 SURO eT ACI PING W AIM. sys ese ine Vo MiNim d's ee cian se Sisie ngs alee e dad roe ebs 16 Pete LOSE IN OSb COMMON tre naa nis 2 sulcvare Waals ds eiptleraaalas secure dae ee 16 Hore ROSS LOSS POC eM banc cic meade ens siaistehe sale. Pa aedea aces Saws ERR 16 Pilantoimdicatinera tertile soll yaar Sls dy; on Le Oise aad Uae) cae eeids ¢ bos ele ables 18 Plants peculiar to the prairies........ SSM MAS cpa ns Ra: ssl o saiesie okt awl oe eRe oma 19° Overlapping of northern and southern species in the Grand River Valley...... 19 Barimer ine D CLG eae cee Wiel Dae tee Sy US ok ESRB ee thee feed 19 SOUP Mer MESDE CEOS seri bsistas mit das sh! Oa thats cre anciesteoel Sialede alates wielault esata Levene eave 19 Comparison of the flora of the eastern and the western sides of the State in MUD UE MP CH A GEA OE emer ves tine HU Mr sues unas -Aedeian the. ayitaval ita patere\ eet ws Mica ee alae harem EO 20 a. Northern plants found on the east side of the State and not on the west 20 b. Southern plants found on the west side of the State and not on the east 20 Plants supposed to have immigrated from the northeast............... .seeeee 20 Plants supposed to have immigrated from the north and west.................. Ropuyalt Trees of Michigan compared with those of Hurope...\...0.....5.. 00.0. eee eee 21 . Why has Michigan so many trees and Great Britain so few?.................. 22

PENMAN SID ANUS ars ene Te searct a, cals cet scivarch date, satajehciou ste wise ake fenetahaisiiaseisielecein tae a teleee 24 Micon aniv eA eIMELOCUCER fini elical sien once eiaseial fe o'2i6 oles cele ec vie tors «ew Blelgheie nes 25 List of weeds introduced from Europe and ASia.........5... ccc cece cece eeeee 25 ITEM ENDS: Weel. tui 8i jc cc's acd eind «ule a SUA Wiahictige eo oe ie acaba Somat om 27 INV OISOM OMS LAWL sa 86 Cay ie care: cidh oai'cle=elele Muwlete ezeis selelatisre eba\elers vols eie’sla'e Sielecaverehel tears 12 NatimeDlaMtsdidet CISAPPCAPING. +... ' cas Wes game os sel tleve wiislsl«'eleie, a sidlgie erstelaleleelats 28 Deiniawon trees Tnnigenous. tO MiChigan, oo... suuie sas diie de weanes ese oyu ene tome _ 28. LishoOteneubsundimenous to Michigan) ass <0 ae alews's Se vesldie «ocr sb esa sleaneteles 30 PEG SSM LEU CONT etary reese eee aa eats eeeh ata Sich sacle duete aie wiieed ake tres eye st eie aaete. Hepler eels 34



The following publications have been consulted in the preparation of


this work:

Wright, John, M, D., Catalogue of the Phenogams and Filicoid Plants col- lected on the Geological Survey of Michigan. Legislative Report No. 23, pp. 17-44. Detroit.

1849. Burt, W. A., Catalogue of the Plants collected in the primitive region south of Lake Superior in 1846. D. Cooley, Jackson’s Lake Superior, pp. 875-882. Washington, D. C.

1850. ee Louis, Lake Superior, its Physical Character, Vegetation and Ani- mals, ete.

1851: Whitney, W. D., List of Plants of the Upper Peninsula in Report on the Geology. of the Lake Superior Land District: J. W. Foster and J. D. Whitney, part 2.

1853. Cooley, D., M. D., A Manuscript List of the Plants growing spontaneously within ten miles of Cooley’s corners, Washington, Macomb, Co.

1861. Winchell, N. H., Catalogue of Phenogamous and Acrogenous Plants found growing wild in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the Islands at the head of Lake Huron. Geological Report for 1860, pp. 245-330.

1873. Coleman, N., Catalogue of Flowering Plants of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan, with a few of the Cryptogamia. Grand Rapids, Miscellaneous Publications, No. 2, Kent Scientific Institute.

1876. Tuthill, F. H., Some notes on the Flora near Kalamazoo, Mich. Bot. Gaz. Vol. 1, pp. 13-14.

1876. Almendinger, E. C., Flora of Ann Arbor and Vicinity. Proceedings of the _ Ann Arbor Scientific Association, pp. 85-116. 1877. Palmer, Elmore, M. D., Catalogue of Phenogamous and Acrogenous Plants found growing wild in the State of Michigan.

1877. Spalding, V. M., List of Native Medicinal Plants of Michigan. Proceedings

of the Michigan Pharmaceutical Association. ie

1878. Lyons, A. B., M. D., Medicinal Plants Indigenous in Michigan. Novy 27,

1877, Detroit. Lancet, February and March, 1878.

1880. Bailey, L. H., Jr., Michigan Lake Shore Plants at South Haven. Bot. Gaz. pp. 76-77 and pp. '90- 91.

1882. Bailey, L. H., Jr., Limits of Michigan Plants. Bot. Gaz. pp. 106-108.

- 1882. Foerste, A. F,, Plants of Belle Isle, Michigan. Bot. Gaz. pp. 202-203.

1884. Hill, B. a, The Menominee Iren Region and its Flora. I., pp. 208-211; ILI., pp. 225-229; Bot. Gaz.

1886. Campbell, D. H., Plants of the Detroit River. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol.

- XIII, pp. 98-94.

1888. Beal, W. J., List of Trees and Shrubs belonging to Michigan. First Report of State Forestry Commission, pp. 36-51.

1888. Beal, W. J., Flora of the Sandy Pine Plains of Michigan. Report Mich. Hort. Soe: pp. 49-55.

1890. Gray, Asa, Manual of the Seotaay. of the Northern United States. 6th Ed. pp. 760. American Book Co., N. Y. 1890. Hill, E. J., Notes on the Flora of the Lake Superior Region. I., pp. 140-

149; IL., pp. 159-166; Bot. Gaz. 2


1890. Bailey, L. E Jr., The Carices of the Upper Half of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, pp. 61-64, Vol. 17.

1890. Macoun, John, M. A., Catalogue of Canadian Plants. S. C., 1883-1890.

1891. Wheeler, C. F., Central Michigan Cyperaceae. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, p. 148. Vol. 18.

1891. Beal, W. J., and Wheeler, C. F., Michigan Flora. Report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, pp. 471-689.

1893. Blodgett, H. T., Plants of Mason County, Mich. Asa Gray Bull. No. 3.

1893. Hicks, Gilbert ae New and Rare Michigan Plants. Asa Gray Bull. No. 3.

1894. varwell, OLAS Contributions to the Botany of Michigan. Asa Gray Bull. Nos. 6, 7, et seq.

1894. Pieters, A. J., Plants of Lake St. Clair. Bull. Mich. Fish Commission, No, 2, 1893.

1894. Reighard, J. E., Biological Examinations of Lake St. Clair. Bull. Mich. Fish Commission No. 4.

1894. Davis, Charles A., The Flora of Michigan Lakes. First Report of the Mich. Acad. Sci. pp. 24-31, ;

1896. Cole, Miss Emma J., List of Plants collected in and about Grand Rapids. 3

1896-8. Britton, N. L., and Brown, Addison, An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. In three Volumes, Vol. I. pp. 612, Vol. II. pp. 643, Vol III. pp. 588. Charles Scribner’s Sons, NS Y.

1897. Dodge, C. K., Flora of St. Clair County, Michigan and the Western part of Lambton County, Ontario. Report of the Secretary of the Mich. State Hort.

< Soc. pp. 230-314.

1898. Davis, Charles A., Contributions to the Knowledge of the Flora of Tuscola

County. First Report of the Mich. Acad. Sci. p. 116, 1898. Bot. Gaz., June _ 1898, pp. 453-58.

1900. Davis, Charles A., Botanical Notes on Huron County. Michigan Geological Survey Reports, VII. pp. 235-245.

1900. Farwell, O. A., A catalogue of the Flora ‘of Detroit with additions, from the oe Annual Report of the Commissioner of ee and Boulevards,

; etroit

1901. Britton, N. L., Manual of the Flora of the Northern Sinipe and Canada. pp. 1080. Henry Holt & Co., N. Y.

1901. Livingston, Burton E., The Distribution of the Plant Societies of Kent County. Michigan Geological Survey, Third Annual Report, pp. 81-1038.

1902. Clark, H. L., Notes on the Flora of Eaton County. Third Report of ae Mich. Acad. Sci, pp. 51-52.

1908. Livingston, Burton H., The Relation of Soils to Natural Vegetation in Bae common and Crawford Counties. Mich. Geol. Survey, Annual Report.

1903. Daniels, Francis Potter, Flora of the Vicinity of Manistee, Mich. Fourth Re- port of the Mich. ‘Acad. Sci. pp. 125-144.

1903. Daniels, Francis Potter, Ecology of the Flora of Sturgis and vicinity, Mich, Fourth Report of the Mich. Acad. Sci. pp. 145-159.


The following Herbaria have been examined:

The Herbarium of the State Agricultural College is fortunate in pos- sessing the collection of Dr. D. Cooley, an excellent botanist who lived - many years in Washington, Macomb county. He was a valued correspond- ent of Dr. Gray, Dr. Torrey, W. S. Sullivant and other botanists of the | early part of this century.

The Herbarium of Dr. D. Clark, of Flint, Mich., has lately become the property of the State Agricultural College. This collection contains sets of Bebbs’ Willows, Olney’s Carices. and many specimens from the earlier American collectors, besides valuable collections of Michigan plants. ue

The large collection of Prof. C. F. Wheeler, which was destroyed by the burning of the Botanical Laboratory on the 234 of March, 1890,



Prof. V. M. Spalding kindly permitted us to examine the University Herbarium at Ann Arbor, in which are deposited the collections of Dr. Douglass Houghton, 1838; Miss Mary H. Clark, Miss E. C. Almendinger,: Prof. M. W. Harrington, Prof. N. H. Winchell, Geo. L. Ames, M. D., F.. E. Wood and others. ;

The collection of plants belonging to the Kent Scientific Institute at Grand Rapids under the charge of Mr. George D. Sones.

The collection of O. J. Stilwell, which belongs now to Prof. ©. A. Davis of University of Michigan; also Prof. Davis’ collection.

The collection of G. H. Hicks, of the Agricultural College, made in Northern and Central “Michigan.

The collection of G. F. Comstock, made in Lenawee County, 1845-50, now the property of Dr. W. J. Beal.

The collection of Dr. W. J. Beal, 1860-1870, now the property of the Michigan Agricultural College.


To the following persons we are indebted for lists of the plants growing in their several localities:

Farwell, O. A., for full list of plants of the Keweenaw peninsula, Ypsi- lanti and Detroit, with copious notes and many specimens.

Beardslee, Prof. H._C., of the University School, Cleveland, O., and Kofoid, Prof. Chas. A., Leland Stanford Jr. University, for a very com- plete list of the plants of Cheboygan County, Mich., observed by them during the smmer of 1890, with full notes and many specimens.

Dodge, C. K., fer a collection of the plants growing in the vicinity of Port Huron, with many ‘notes on variation and distribution.

Dewey, L. H., for a list of the plants in the vicinity of Tecumseh, Mich.

Hull, Prof. W., for notes and specimens from Albion and vicinity.

Orth, S. P., for list of plants in the vicinity of Imlay City.

Mosely, HE. H., for a list of plants observed near Union City.

Foerste, A. F., for a list of plants observed in the eastern part of St. Clair county.

Mitchell, Prof. I. N., for a list of plants collected in various parts o the State. he St. John, Prof. C. E., for a list of plants collected in Mason county and in the southeastern portion of the State.

Stacey, I. W., for a list of plants collected at Clarksville, Ionia county.

Daniels, F. P., for a list of plants collected at Manistee and Sturgis.

Cooper, W.’S.. St. Clair county.

Davis, Charles A., lists of plants of Gratiot county in the vicinity of Alma, and about Ann Arbor.

Bradford, G. M., Flora of Bay county.

Pepoon, H. S., catalogue of the plants of Michigan adjacent to Lakes Magician, Dewey, Cable and Crooked, Van Buren and Cass counties.


Michigan is peculiarly situated within the waters of the great lakes, N. latitude 41°45’ to 48°20’; W. longitude 82°25’ to 90°34’. It is divided into two parts, called the Upper and Lower Peninsulas. The greatest length of the northern portion from east to west is 318 miles, width 30 to


164 miles, forming about two-fifths of the State. The greatest length of the southern portion from north to south is 277 miles and its extreme width is 259 miles. The total area is 58,915 square miles, with a coast ,of over 1,600 miles. :

The general elevation of the Upper Peninsula is 400 to 1,100 feet above Lake Superior, and that of the Lower Peninsula is 400 to 600 feet above the level of Lakes Michigan and Huron.

The two parts of the State present a striking contrast in many respects. The Upper Peninsula may be divided into two sections east and west of a line drawn through Marquette which present very marked surface and geological characteristics. The eastern portion slopes northward from its southern border to a watershed and thence falls rapidly to the shores of Lake Superior. This plateau contains many lakes and marshes, also fine forests of pine intermixed with groves of hardwood.

The western part is rugged and hilly, some of the hills rising 1,000 to 1,200 feet. In the extreme northwest are ranges which form the copper region; the central range extends from Keweenaw Point across to the Wisconsin line; on’ either side are the Porcupine mountains and the copper range proper. ;

South and east of the copper range lies the iron range of Marquette and Iron counties. The eastern portion of this peninsula is underlaid with stratified rocks belonging to the Silurian period, while the western part is occupied by the copper bearing rocks and those of the Huronian period. Glacial drift covers deeply a large portion of both the eastern and western sections.

The Lower Peninsula is generally level or rolling, sloping up in its northern portion to a central ridge or watershed which extends nearly northeast and southwest, the highest part of which, in Otsego county, is _ 1,100 feet above the lake level.

The shores along the west side of this peninsula are generally bold bluffs which are constantly wearing away, while on the Huron shore they are low and extending by additions of earth cast up by the waves.

The rivers are small but their number is great, and these, with the 5,000 lakes scattered along the watersheds of the State abundantly water all parts of it.

Dr. C. Rominger, a former State Geologist, writes of the geology of the

Lower Peninsula as follows: “It forms the center-point of an oceanic bay |

which seems to have existed without any important alteration in its limits, from the beginning of the Silurian period to the end of the Carbon- iferous time. We find within the space supposed to have been the bay an _ uninterrupted series of marine deposits, following each other in the great- est regularity of superposition, which represent all the known formations deposited on this continent from the Silurian period on to the coal forma-

tion.” The entire surface of the peninsula is covered deeply with glacial

drift, consisting of sand, gravels and clays variously intermixed.

The topographical outlines of the Lower Peninsula are due to the joint an of moving ice and flowing water during and following the glacial period.

Beginning in Presque Isle county the lateral moraine of the Huron glacier passes southwest near the line between Montmorency and Alpena counties, thence south by west through Oscoda, Roscommon and Clare, meeting in Mecosta county, the east lateral moraine of Lake Michigan. These join and pass in a southwest direction through Kent, Barry, Kala-


mazoo and St. Joseph counties. The Saginaw bay branch of the Huron _ glacier unites with the Huron glacier proper, and forms a lateral moraine © beginning in Huron county, passing through Sanilac, Lapeer, Oakland, _ Livingston and portions of Jackson, Washtenaw and ‘Hillsdale counties. '- This peninsula is divided by these moraines into certain more or less clearly marked floral regions. /


“The sinuosities of the several isothermal lines will demonstrate at a _ glance the peculiar chafacter of the climate of Michigan, and the fact that both in summer and winter, it is better adapted to the interests of agri- culture and horticulture, and probably also to the comfort and health of its citizens, than the climate of any other northwestern state. The marked peculiarity of the climate of Michigan in these respects is attributable to the influence of the great lakes by “which the state is nearly surrounded. It has long been known that considerable bodies of water exert a local influence in modifying climate and especially in averting frosts, but it has never been expected that Lake Michigan, for instance, impresses upon the climatic character of a broad region an influence truly comparable with that exerted by the great ocean.”—ALEXANDER WINCHELL,

The following general notes on Climate and Distribution are from the preface to the first edition by E. F. Smith:

“The influence of climate on vegetation may be'summed up in a few words. The climate of the Lower Peninsula is not as severe as that of the _ Upper, nor so even, but is subject to frequent, sudden, and extreme changes of temperature—as great a variation during the winter season as 53° Fahr. in less than 24 hours having been recorded. Such rapid changes more or less affect vegetation, especially the tender branches of cultivated trees, which are sometimes seriously injured. In one or two instances a like effect on our forest trees bas been noticed. The annual range of temperature is about 116°, and the annual mean 46°. Of rain- fall, including what falls in form of snow, we have, yearly, about thirty inches. Our snowfall is much less, for the same latitude, than that of New York and New England. In the center of the peninsula, we seldom have more than a few inches at a time.

“The proximity of the Great Lakes exerts a marked influence in equal- izing the temperature and the effects are marked upon our flora.

“Trees, like Liriodendron Tulipifera, Asimina triloba, Cercis Canaden- sis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Cornus florida, Nyssa multiflora, and Morus rubra, which belong to Ohio and Central Illinois, have crept northward, favored by the mild influence of the lake winds, through the central aud western part of the Lower Peninsula, often beyond the middle, and the same is true of smaller and less noticeable plants.

“As might be expected from the uniform surface of the peninsula, the . flora is much alike throughout. Probably three-fourths of our species are common to all sections, though by no means equally distributed; some

being very abundant in one district and rare in another at no great dis-

tance. In most cases such change is due to soil rather than to difference in elevation, temperature, or atmospheric moisture.

“The Lower Peninsula is covered with a deep drift of alternating sands, clays, and gravels, and the flora of any section depends chiefly on which of these happens to lie uppermost. With reference to its flora, the penin-



sula may roughly be divided into two great divisions—the hardwood and the softwood lands; one representing the Appalachian flora, and the other, the Canadian. $

“The hardwood country lies south of latitude 43°, and consists of very fertile sand, clay, or loam, mostly cleared of the original forest, and largely cultivated.

“The sandy or stony drift of many river valleys in this section supports a heavy growth of oak, frequently interspersed with walnut and hickory, while the margins of the streams, and the neighboring swamps, abound in soft maples, swamp and chestnut oak, white and black ash, elm, hack- berry, sycamore, butternut, and similar trees. Willows, dogwoods, vibur- nums, and buttonbush, are common shrubs in the swamps; and hazel, hawthorn, wild cherry and plum, June berry, witch-hazel, etc., are abund- ant on the dryer ground.

“On the uplands, and away from streams, clay, loam, and a peculiar black muck soil supersede the sands and gravels of the valleys. The pre- vailing timber here is beech and maple and oak forest in about equal pro- portions. Beech and maple generally grow together, forming magnificent forests of great extent. The best wheat farms are usually found on uplands near streams, where the oak timber gradually shades into beech and maple. Plains of fertile sand covered with a low, or scattering growth of oak (oak openings) are frequent, and*always very desirable for farming purposes. ;

“Marshes densely covered with tamarack are common in this part of the State, and nourish in their thick shade such plants as Drosera rotundifolia, Sarracenia purpurea, Rhus venenata, Ribes rubrum, Chio- genes hispidula, Salia candida, Smilacina trifolia, Pogonia ophiogbos- soides and Calopogon pulchellus. Arbor-vitee, red cedar and black spruce are comparatively rare. ;

“A similar tract of soil and timber occurs in the upper end of the pen- insula, north of a line drawn from Thunder bay west to the head of Grand Traverse bay. This is commonly known as the “Traverse region,” and has a flora much like that we have just described. with the exception that some of the southern species disappear, and northern ones begin to take their place, or if found growing further south, here first become frequent. Deep forests of hemlock and yellow birch (B. lutea) mixed with a fine, tall growth of striped maple (A. Pennsylvanicum) are frequent, having underneath a tangled growth of Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis, and under all a carpet of Lycopodium annotinum. Alternating with these are sandy plains covered with a dense growth of Vacciniwms, yielding a great abun- dance of fruit. Sugar maples and basswood are also abundant in this region, and reach an immense size. In fact, it would be difficult to find finer groves of maple in any part of the State.

“The pine country proper lies between the two tracts we have described, and embraces about 15,000 square miles. It is composed largely of sand hills and plains, either scantily furnished with vegetation, or densely cov- ered with pine forest. Argillaceous tracts wooded with beech and maple also occur, like oases in a desert; and swamps abound, with the usual low- land timber. Forests of hemlock spruce are frequent, and there are occa- sional ridges of oak. Birch (B. lutea) also begins to be a common forest tree, and attains a large size. The usual timber of the barrens is Jack


Pine (P. Banksiana). Climatic and other influences have combined to _

produce groves composed entirely of this species of large size and of great


beauty, for, instead of being ‘a straggling shrub, or low tree’ (Gray), it rises, often 50-60 feet, straight and symmetrical. All through this region Pinus Strobus is the prevailing species and furnishes most of the lumber, but P. resinosa is frequent as far south as Clare county, and occurs spar- ingly in the northern part of Isabella county, which appears to be its southern limit. :

“Such is the general character of the sylva down to about latitude 43°. but in the western part of the State, owing perhaps to moister climate, or to favorable soil, hemlock spruce is more abundant, and reaches much farther south, nearly oy quite to the Indiana line, and the same is true of

white pine. ot “The flora of the deep pine woods is interesting, though rather monot-

-onous. Very little undergrowth is found, and their gloomy recesses nourish only such plants as love thick shade. Here the club-mosses (Lycopodiums) find a congenial home, and flourish luxuriantly, while Clintonia borealis covers the ground. The great round-leaved orchid (Habenaria orbiculata), with its tall, greenish spike and twin leaves close to the earth, is also frequent and striking. We shall also meet Mitchella repens, Maianthemum Canadense, Trillium grandiflorwm, perhaps, and a few ferns, particularly Asplenium Filix-femina and Phegopteris Dryop- teris. Other species occur, of course, but not so abundantly. In iore open places, and on ridges, we meet Rhus aromatica and Comptonia along with wintergreen (Gaultheria) and trailing arbutus (Hpigwa), and are often fortunate enough to find the wax-white, fragrant flower of Moneses uniflora, or Polygala paucifolia, hiding its shining leaves under a wealth of showy pink blossoms. :

“The floral treasures of the pine region lie, however, in its swamps and lake borders rather than in the deep woods. Therein grows Linnea borealis in all its delicate beauty, carpeting the ground, and close at hand, the odd, brown-purple flower of Cypripedium acaule and the small yellow blossom of its water-loving relative C. parviflorum. In such swamps, or

within a stone’s throw of them, may be found many other plants of equal

interest, such as Medeola Virginica, Ledum latifolium, Andromeda Poli- folia, Kalmia glauca, Lonicera oblongifolia, Cardamine pratensis, Ger- ardia aspera, Mitella nuda, Eriophorum .vaginatum, etc. On lake mar- gins we shall find Lysimachia and the blue Pontederia and more rarely, Nesea and Eleocharis quadrangulata. The lake itself, most likely, will be full of Nymphaea, Nuphar, Utricularias, and a world of Potamoge- tons and similar water weeds. Shrubby Vacciniwms line the bluffs, and here and there gleam the white trunks of paper birches against the dark background of pines. a

“In the thick-pine country, where the lumberman’s ax has let in the sunlight, new plants spring up freely. Here, Prunus Pennsylwanica and poplars are frequent, and the blackberry is omnipresent. Aralia hispida and Physalis lanceolata are also peculiar to such land, and in August Gnaphalium decurrens may be seen whitening thousands of acres.

“One seldom beholds a drearier sight than a dead and deserted lumber region. The valuable trees were all felled years ago, and the lum- berman moved on to fresh spoils, leaving behind an inextricably confused

' mass of tree tops, broken logs, and uprooted trunks. Blackberry canes spring up everywhere, forming a tangled thicket, and a few scattering poplars, birches, and cherries serve for arboreal life, above which tower the dead pines, bleached in the weather and blackened by fire, destitute of



limbs, and looking at a distance not unlike the masts of some great harbor.

Thousands of such acres, repellant alike to botanist and settler, can be

seen in any of our northern counties.

“Tn certain districts considerable beech is found associated with the pine. The soil of such tracts is usually of better quality, and can be rendered productive without much labor. It may be noted that in such cases the pine also grows thriftier and makes better lumber.”


- The plants of this region are all found in one or more of the regions previously enumerated.

The soil of these plains is mainly sand of considerable depth which dries out quickly after a rain, and is then especially liable to be burned over, the burning often destroying every living plant above the surface of the soil. In this way, by repeated burning, much of the vegetable matter is removed, leaving the surface soil thin.

The following seventy species of plants are almost certain to be found in considerable quantity on any extended area of Jack-pine plains:


Amelanchier Botryapium (L. f.) DC. Shad-bush. (Amelanchier Canadensis var. oblongifolia T. & G.) . Andropogon furcatus Muh]. Finger, or Beard-grass. Andropogon scoparius Michx. Beard-grass. Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi (L.) Spreng. Bearberry. Aster levis L. Smooth Aster. Carex Pennsylvanica Lam. Pennsylvania Sedge. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. (Myrica asplenifolia L.) Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Wild Oat-grass. Epigea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. Gaultheria procumbens L. Wintergreen. Leptilon Canadense (L.) Britton. Horse-weed. (Erigeron Canadensis L.)

- Oryzopsis juncea (Michx.) B. S. P. Mountain Rice. (Oryzopsis Canadensis Torr.) Pinus divaricata (Ait.) Gord. Gray Pine. Jack Pine. (Pinus Banksiana Lambert.) Populus tremuloides Michx. Aspen. Prunus Pennsylvanica L. f. Wild Red, or Pin Cherry. Prunus pumila L. Sand Cherry. Prunus Virginiana L. Choke-Cherry. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuntze. Eagle Fern. (Pieris aquilina L.) Quercus coccinea. Wang. Scarlet Oak.’ Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. (Quercus tinctoria Bartram.) Rumex Acetosella L. Sheep Sorrel. Salix humilis Marsh. Low willow. Solidago nemoralis Ait. Golden Rod. Vaccinium Canadense Richards. Low Blueberry. Vaccinium Pennsylvanicim Lam. Dwarf Blueberry. Vaccinium vacillans Kalm. Low Blueberry.



Adopogon Virginicum (L.) Kuntze. Dwarf Dandelion. Virginia Goatsbeard. (Krigia amplexicaulis Nutt.)

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B. S. P.

(Agrostis scabra Willd.) MHair-Grass.

ta a a



Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards. Plaintain-leaved Everlasting. Apocynum androsemifolium L. Dogbane. ~ Aralia hispida Vent. Bristly Sarsaparilla. Campanula rotundifolia L. Bluebell. Harebell. Carduus odoratus (Muhl.) Porter.

(Cnicus punrilus Torr.)

Ceanothus Americanus L. New Jersey Tea. Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Convolvulus spithameus L. Low Bindweed. Diervilla Diervilla (L.) MacM. -Bush Honeysuckle. (Diervilla trifida Moench.

Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B.S. P. Daisy Fleabane. (Erigeron strigosus Mubhi. )

Festuca ovina lL. Sheep’s Fescue.

Fragaria Virginiana Duchesne. Strawberry. (Fragaria Virginiana Illinoensis A. Gray.) Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T. & G. Black Huckleberry. Gnaphalium decurrens Ives. Everlasting. Helianthemum Canadense (L.) Michx. Frost-wort. Helianthus divaricatus L. Wild Sunflower. Helianthus occidentalis Riddell. Wild Sunflower. Hieracium venosum L. Rattlesnake-weed. Houstonia longifolia Gaertn. Houstonia. (Houstonia purpurea longifolia A. Gray.)

Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. Koeleria.

Lacinaria cylindracea (Michx.) Kuntze. Blazing Star. (Liatris cylindracea Michx.)

Lithospermum Gmelini (Michx.) A. S. Hitchcock. Hairy Puccoon. (Lithospermum hirtum Lehm.)

Lycopodium complanatum L. Ground-pine.

Melampyrum lineare Lam. Cow-wheat.

(Melampyrum Americanum Michx.)

Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot.

Onaegra biennis (L.) Scop. Evening primrose.

(Ginothera biennis L.)

Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Paniec-Grass.

Panicum dichotomum lL. Panic-Grass.

Pinus resinosa Ait. Norway or Red Pine.

Pinus Strobus L. White Pine. :

Polygala polygama Walt. Pink polygala.

Populus grandidentata Michx. Large-toothed tee

Potentilla Canadensis L. Five-finger. Cinque-foil.

Quercus alba L. White Oak.

Rubus Canadensis L. Dewberry.

Rubus hispidus L. Dewberry.

Rudbeckia hirta L. Cone-flower.

Sibbaldiopsis tridentatata (Soland.) Rydb. Three-toothed Cinque-foil. (Potentilla tridentata Ait.).

Solidago juncea Ait. Golden Rod.

‘Unifolium Canadense (Desf.) Greene.

(Maianthemum Canadense Desf.)

Viola arenaria DC. Sand Violet.

(Viola canina puberula S. Wats.)

Viola pedata L. Bird-foot Violet.

The above list consists of representatives of thirty families, of fifty-

four genera, and of seventy species. The families of plants best repre- sented on the plains are the Rasacew by six species, Composite by thirteen species, Graminee by nine species, Vacciniacee by four.

The following large and prominent families of the State are not repre-

sented in the list given above: Ranunculacee, Crucifere, Caryophyllacee,

Saxifragacee, Umbellifere, Orchidacee.



Most remarkable of all is the absence of any Papilionticee though the family is second in size only to the Composite. - The Papilionacee is represented in the State by 43 native species and varieties.

The number of biennials given in this list is remarkably small, only two, and there are no annuals in it. Sixty-eight out of seventy are perennials and most persistent plants well adapted by long, deep roots and root- stocks to live in poor soil which is subject to severe droughts. Most of them are admirably adapted to survival after a severe Be has burned over the ground and killed the tops of the plants.

PLANTS INDICATING A FERTILE SOIL, : Acer Saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple, when the wood is solid and of fine quality. (Acer saccharinum Wang.) Acer nigrum Michx. Black sugar maple. (Acer saccharinum nigrum Torr. & Gray.) Adiantum pedatum L. Maidenhair Fern. Angelica villosa (Walt.) B. S. P. Angelica. (Angelica hirsuta Muhl.) Apios Apios (L.) Mac M. Ground-nut. (Apios tuberosa Moench.) Arisema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Indian Turnip. Asplenium angustifolium Michx. Spleenwort. Asplenium acrostichoides Sw. Spleenwort. (Asplenium thelypteroides Michx.) Cassia Marylandica L. Wild Senna. Collinsonia Canadensis L. Rich-weed. Stone-root. Crataegus tomentosa L. Hawthorn. Dentaria diphylla Michx. Toothwort. Pepper-root. Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Toothwort. Pepper-root. Bicuculla Canadensis (Goldie) Millsp. Squirrel Corn. (Dicentra Canadensis DC.) Bicuculla Cucullara (L.) Millsp. Dutchman’s Breeches. (Dicentra Cucullaria DC.) Fraxinus Americana L. White Ash. Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Blue Ash. Hydrastis Canadensis L. Golden Seal. Hydrophyllum Canadense L. Waterleaf. Hydrophylium Virginicum L. Waterleaf. Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. Menispermum Canadense L. Moonseed. Orchis spectabilis L. Showy Orchis. Podophyllum Sees L. May-Apple. Mandrake. Quercus alba L. White Oak. When well grown. Quercus, macrocarpa Michx. Bur-Oak. Ribes Cynosbati L. Prickly Gooseberry. Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry. Scrophularia Marylandica L. Figwort. (Scrophularia nodosa Marylandica A. Gray.) Taraxacum Taraxacum (L.) Karst. Dandelion. (Taraxacum officinale Weber.) Tilia Americana L. Basswood. Ulmus Americana L. American Elm. Uimus racemosa Thomas. Rock Elm. Uvularia grandiflora J. E. Smith. Bellwort. Verbena hastata L. Blue Vervain.

When well grown and of good size, several other trees are indications of good soil.



-The following plants are peculiar to the prairie region of the south- western portion of the State:

Amorpha canescens Pursh. Lead-Plant? Asclepias verticillata L. Milkweed. Aster sericeus Vent. Aster. Atheropogon curtipendulus (Michx.) Fourn. (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.) Baptisia leucantha Torr. & Gray. False Indigo. Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britton. Cone-Flower. (Hchinacea purpurea Moench.) Coreopsis palmata Nutt. ; ; Helianthus scaberrimus Hl! Sunflower. (Helianthus rigidus Desf.)

. Phlox bifida Beck. Phlox.

~ Silphium integrifolium Michx. Rosin-weed. Silphium laciniatum L. Compass-plant. Silphium perfoliatum L. Cup-plant.



Carex Magellanica Lam.- Sedge.

Carex pauciflora Lightf. Sedge.

Carex tenuiflora Wahl. Sedge.

Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. Dragon-head. Hriophorum vyaginatum L. Cotton-grass. ; Lonicera oblongifolia (Goldie) Hook. Swamp Fly-Honeysuckle. Mimulus Jamesii T. & G. Monkey-flower.

Primula Mistassinica Michx. Primrose.

Symphoricarpos pauciflorus (Robbins) Britton. Snowberry. (Symphoricarpos racemosus paucifiorus Robbins.)

Taxus Canadensis Willd. American Yew. Ground Hemlock.


Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Papaw. ;

Bidens trichosperma tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britton. Tick-seed. Sunflower. (Coreopsis trichosperma var. tenuiloba A. Gray.) Cassia Marylandica L. Wild Senna.

Cercis Canadensis L. Red-bud. Judas-tree. Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz.

Collinsia verna Nutt. Blue-eyed Mary.

Bleocharis interstincta (Vahl.) R. & S. Spike-rush. (Hleocharis equisetoides Torr.)

Eleocharis mutata (L.) R. & S. Spike-rush. (Eleocharis quadrangulata R. & S.)

Bleocharis olivacea Torr. Spike-rush.

Bleocharis Robbinsii Oakes. Spike-rush.

Eleocharis rostellata Torr. Spike-rush.

Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Harbinger of Spring. Gymnocladus dioica (L.) Koch. Ky. Coffee-tree. (Gymnocladus Canadensis Lam.)

Hicoria laciniosa (Michx. f.) Sarg. King-nut. (Carya sulcata Nutt.)

Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl.) Britton. (Hemicarpha subsquarrosa Nees.)

Liriodendron Tulipifera L. White-wood. Tulip-tree. Meibomia Marylandica (L.) Kuntze. Tick-Trefoil. (Desmodium Merilandicum Boot.) ;

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry.


Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq. Prairie Dock. Tradescantia Virginica L. Common Spiderwort. Utricularia resupinata B. D. Greene. Bladderwort. < >


On the east side, the latitude in question is near Harrisville in Alcona county. On the west side it is near Frankfort in Benzie county.

It has long been known that the climate of the west shore where the wind sweeps across Lake Michigan was milder in winter, and throughout the year less variable than it is on the east side of the State. So far as observed. the plants of the State which are only found in the vicinity of the great lakes are more abundant in individuals on the west shore.


Botrychium Lunaria (L.) Swartz. Moonwort.

* Botrychium simplex Hitchcock. Moonwort. Carex capillaris L. Sedge. . Carex durifolia Bailey. Back’s Sedge. (Carex Backii Boott.) Carex Houghtonii Torr. Sedge. Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. Dragon-head. Kalmia angustifolia L. Sheep Laurel. Lambkill. Kalmia glauca Ait. Swamp Laurel. Pale Laurel. Picea Canadensis (Mill) B. S. P. White Spruce. (Picea alba Link.) Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. Swamp Gooseberry. Sparganium simplex Huds. 3


Adiantum pedatum L. Maiden Hair Fern. Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple. (Acer dasycarpum Ebrh.)

Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry. Sambucus Canadensis L. Common Elder. Sassafras Sassafras (L.). Karst.

(Sassafras officinale Nees.)

Ulmus fulva Michx. Red Elm.

Ulmus racemosa Thomas. Rock Elm.

This list is doubtless incomplete, but so far as it goes it sustains the pre- vailing notion that the west side of the State has the milder climate. We might be able to see why silver maple, sassafras, black raspberry, red elm and rock elm thrive on the west shore and not on the east, but we are unable to see why the northern plants found on the east shore should not be found on the west shore. Perhaps there is some other reason than the difference of climate of the present day.


Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes.

(Calypso borealis Salisb.)

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf.

Equisetum littorale Kuehl.

Eriocaulon septangulare Withering. Pipewort. : Gyrostachys stricta Rydb. Hooded Ladies’ Tresses. = (Gyrostachys Romanzfiana (Cham.) MacM.) Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. (Selaginella spinosa Beauv.)


Trillium erectum L. Wake Robin. Trillium undulatum Willd. Painted Wake-Robin. (Trillium erythrocarpwm Michx.)



Adenocaulon bicolor Hook.

Anemone parviflora Michx. Anemone.

Artemisia gnaphalodes Nutt. Mugwort.

(Artemisia Ludoviciana gnaphalodes T. & G.) 5 Brauneria pallida (Nutt.) Britton. Purple Cone-flower, (Hchinacea angustifolia’ DC.)

Bromus breviaristatus (Hook.) Buckl. Brome Grass. Castilleja acuminata (Pursh) Spreng. Painted-cup, (Castilleja pallida septentrionalis A. Gray.)

Drosera linearis Goldie. Sundew.

Euphorbia serpyllifclia Pers. Spurge.

Iva xanthiifolia (Fresen.) Nutt. Marsh Elder. -

Lonicera involucrata (Richards) Banks. Honeysuckle.