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THE AMERICAN MUSEUM

JOURNAL

EDITED BY MARY CYNTHIA DICKERSON

VOLUME XV, I9I15

\ NEW YORK CITY

Published from October to June, by THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

1915

An illustrated magazine devoted to the advancement of Natural His- tory, the recording of scientific research, exploration and discovery, and the development of museum exhibition and museum influence in education. Contributors are men eminent in these fields, including the scientific staff, explorers and members of the American Museum

FREE TO MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

PRINTED BY THE COSMOS PRESS CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 1915

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XV

JANUARY TMP ALATIOLOMG aM all SACL. ofc sites ys occ a csca is Sle else ai sh is ys, aothste Wt etalobavelene ayes «ee sys ArtTHUR A. ALLEN Appreciation of Theodore Nicholas Gill............ 20... 0. cece eee eee eee FrepERIc A. Lucas ihe Makine of a Hur-Seal Census. ..52i32:¢5522502...2. 5226-008 GrEORGE ARCHIBALD CLARK HGR CO LITIOS HOS. Of G.CINTMOlLOR Yao caw. ove. ole ote le eke ie setae. eel send vote oes a evens ue tehedents c caiee L. P. Gratacap Mam MramMatizer CONSCEVatlOM sn ie cols ches aie s siuteta ol ekecc mine ee side coe ee oer WINTHROP PacKARD He O@row INCIAnESUn DANCE... Se le ok ciel Meise wie) chek eraund sie es winter ae Rosert H. Lowir Educational Motion Pictures in Natural History..................... Raymonp L. Ditmars FEBRUARY PATINA SO MO CT GHA ETA Zl ve Phe cds te ete cee ates: s+ cuore Santee e Seeseh ewes wrens reene THEODORE ROOSEVELT The Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition...................0.00eeeeee seus L. E. MiLuer Roosevelt’s Through the Brazilian Wilderness— A Review.........5....-020e cece J. A. ALLEN Guardinesthe Health of Armies) tia. ace. Woe coe epee tee se Gust eins oe C.-E. A. WINSLOW Home: Songs of the Lewa, Indians)... 5.26 is ee es ce es ee ee ea ee ee HERBERT J. SPINDEN Memories of Professor Albert S. Bickmore....:.............0 2 ee eaeecneveee L. P. GRavTAcaP Marcu TAO VEU EC TH AT steeds eee ne chia ee RMR Ole LEIS CREE reac deer eNOS Arc errar ican aC R ons. “ace i Seton ART est uma, Sart Reece INITIO UC ATI CLT ATI ATL COS pep e colies ic, Stn tite eietraglet scies ateriet cen wcstteyeuetnie: ettar cas) steestamhr ounce ahs Rosert H. Lowi1e Indian Dancesiin the SOUtHWEeSU: . o% duh cece cee oe ks hae ee oes eee ele HERBERT J. SPINDEN Thex@onversavion: Of JOH. IWIN ss acs 2 2s el qrayn's = ewe ee ee eae scale: a MELVILLE B. ANDERSON NVALHOS CeLANSSOM-in' (HE WATCUIC! 2, ec ceche cut cranes Gohe es Gosre cect eens Glee aye aye Burt M. McConne.u The Geographical Results of the Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition.............. W. L. G. JorrRG Daniel Giraud’ lot —-A- Biographical Sketch: =. 7.0424 2... asc tah. = 6 w= «+ waveneiaseususyorele. a teensueteveuens APRIL Portraits of Joon Burroughs: Naturalistiand Author... 2 cn os 6 3 cee oe ect isieten cit eesse cate alee e ears Euntineerher Atri cane UttalOt ety en qyencrs icles aes toe sient een aly ac alae aayial seen Caru E. AKELEY The ‘‘Toad Group” in the American Museum................... Mary Cynruita DIcKERSON Aquarelles of our Common Woodlands............-..... 0.2 cee e ee eeee WarrREN H. MILLER Birdepavhssand: Drinking BOOS, - 3-4-1. cise ct ite freee yee use wie tease © Ernest Haroutp BayNneEs Motionsbicture, Records/of Indians: . 4 .<aenoce ee ce te ole ae Glee ee ele Puiny E. Gopparp August Weismann, Zodlogist: an Appreciation........................-. FrankK R. LILuiEe IMOLezanswHieredity aids Ser. Se ROVICW). 10. ).le rw) teeta eit allel ssid leitelee ewer E. G. ConxLIN Note on the Crocker Land Expedition Ship........................45. GerorGE H. SHERWOOD May OTOL US Hea ae cae oh cred Clee eet E ree ie, KN SE Shape teu sleet ait Anatoa ne bamele altel Bptleyes ase. © Petre wees BSNS Care mem et Oxyecenvanade water On! Wars) pe ats ews chcc we tae Score ots sik tate epee elo ata Wcofetnattalio fa taloy ae PercivaL LOWELL The sehovorrann in) AStroMOnLy . wets Satecns uate aie a eto ter baeueneret eter Sete eewone E. C. ‘SitipHEeR Louis Agassiz Fuertes Painter of Bird Portraits....................... FranK M. CHAPMAN TMheysPenguinsior South: GeOLeia.. <= <r. acco Meee sie tens ates, aus arene) ieeueh RosBeERT CusHMAN Murpuy Muropeant@av.esrand Marly Mian 35 Siz a seve states dene, o henatia, oe be cetertelete aif antes thy eto eneMentenetaies N. C. NELSON Hishes Ole thers eCOpn (SCas «see thoded soe acetone: shave sO oe viertleeteslateda ine co Shetey euaile, boas Sens L. Hussakor Wolcanoesion the Wesser Amtilless |. 072% Suey. heal tne me Gree) Aerelfayre: seaencpeueh a) sre ejioy ehatte te EpmuND OmT1s Hovey Ground-Sloth: fromva Cave: in ‘Patagonia. see... -62 <2 bo. @ noe ee alee W. D. Matraew Somaikoli “Dance: ate SiCHUMOWI es vpsia 4 doe ee eqns eaters wi Ae eneun 2 ys she de F. S. Dr._LeENBAUGH OcTOBER Series ofRecent Miiseuin (Growps's: sic <b cys ie hie ce seek teat olive sel e lelia caus psngacellanusseltis eheushalisbrs tatetantepeteys Tyrannosaurus, the Largest Flesh-eating Animal that Ever Lived............ BarNuM Brown IT GSVOLsbHE MACON GOR pepe nee sche, eas eis rates i ahaha Nee gnats ea ele aces Rees James P. CHAPIN Reproductions in Duotone of African Photographs...................2.00000eeeeee opposite MnevEraliohawariie Vi deed OMNIA arasrc clone cee core saat kaya) =, abe cee wees) clean Sie Davip STARR JORDAN Mhe-Pensuins of South! ‘Georgiass «2 - ast sens =) ee) orale oes Rospert CusHMAN MurRpuHY Ancient Goldy Art:-im-the New WOrld!s 1s ---. 4 tects oe ee lo sho aah e Saenen ee eye HERBERT J. SPINDEN Brederic. Ward. Putnam S39 19a as hae ie cess ees ne tate oe deiarcie aiieteeelmseaes CLARK WISSLER NOVEMBER Biephant Hunting on Mount Kenya... js-i96-02-6 +. a] 2 lee Riel one Caru E. AKELEY Reproductions in Duotone of Antarctic Photographs................. 0.0. e eee ee eee opposite whe Stefansson. Hxpedition of IOUS to 1915. ooo. t. kei te ese ne A. W. GREELY imephexsEomexot the: Hopisindian® ..2 5 6.0.45 saute ane oe aes Gee ste &: @ sien epeleoe airs CLARK WISSLER Beeamnines of INabural MaIstory:. .... ft vepetn<isv Sn eee a aera eeae le cone Cuarues R. HastMan Honiton OL ATM Scan GA TIMOR aso: s ero na) ecetieretteae seas ie eeorene goer een enmsiny 4 foto e any crepe ies BasHFrorD D8AN Tsimshian Stories in Carved Wood................ 0c cece eee eee eee GerorGsE T. Emmons Explonnewas Spur Ob the eANGes: 5 seco syctec wheres Oiiced cenandinin shake taneisie See «rela s siete Leo E. MILueR

103 117 123 129 133

146 151 163 167 176 185 189 194 195

202 207 211 221 225 237 249 254 256 256

266 271 281 292 293 301 307 315

323 338 339 343 349 357 363 367

DrEcEMBER

An, Hxplorer's) Viewsor thet Congo... 2.2.5. 2 ss © census eae ete ciel efenebel ota c) > = Hersert Lane 379 Reproductions in Duotone of African Photographs..................2..00ceeeeeeenes opposite 388 Ancient O@ities: ol. iNew --MGxiCO: | 2c./052 acl ee eee ne ee tee Wore (2 stone N. C. NeEtson 389 Explorations in the Southwest by the American Museum....................-. CuarkK WIsSLER 395 AnimatsyorvBlown Glass, 2 crac cicne.s ce cis aie eR Neo etn clio ean ele fete a Herman O. MUELLER 399 The American Museum's Reptile Groups in Relation to High School Biology..Grorce W. Hunter 405 Hunting Deerin the Adirondacks: «3 < s2tse ie eee es so so cis ois bes 2 Roy CHapMAN ANDREWS 409 News from the ‘Crocker Land: Expedition 149 eceee ts = 2 3 2d oo ale we ese e ee a ane ote 3 oe 415 Beginnings of American wNiatural Historye. see eerie ee es ete ikea Cuar.Les R. Eastman 417 AValuable: New. bird Books, AvReviGWe- meres aoe bls co wie a seem ele T. GILBERT PEARSON 423 Fragments).of ‘Spider 7Wore sieges eines crepe er erence tac 5 Sorter as eet on cite A eee Frank E. Lutz 424 Corythosaurus, the New Duck-billed Dinosaur........ W. D. Mattruew and Barnum Brown 427

ILLUSTRATIONS

African, Natives, insert opp. 292, covers (Oct.), (Dec.), 381-388, Insert opp. 388; Scenes, insert opp. 292

Akeley, Mrs. Carl E., 337

Andes, 368, 369, 370, 371

Armies, Diet of, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71

Arms and Armor, 356, 359, 360, 362

Bad lands, Cretaceous, 275, 276, 277, 278

Baynes, Ernest Harold, 422

Bird, baths, 176, 178, 181, 182, traits, 220, 223, 224, insert opp. 224, cover (May); Congo birds, 282-291

Buffalo, African, 152, 159, 160, 161

Burroughs, John, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150

Brazil, Animals of, 38-47, 65, back and front covers (Feb.)

Brazil, Central, Map, 129

183, 184; Por-

Caves, of Early Man, 236-247, back cover (May)

Chapin, J. P., 204

Comet, a 1910, 215

Congo, birds, 282—291; Forest, 280, 283, 284; Grass country, 285; Natives of, 381-388, insert opp. 388, front cover (Dec.)

Conservation, Dramatizing, 21

Deming, E. W., 91

Deer, Hunting, 409-414; Whitetailed, of Adiron- dacks, back cover (Dec.)

Doubt, River of, 35, 36, 37, 63

Duck, Labrador, 136

Elephant Hunting on Mount Kenya, 322, 323, 325, 326, 327, 330, 333, 334, 335, 336, 338 Elliot, D. G., opp. 133, 134, 135

Fishes, Deep Sea, 248, 252, 253

Fuertes, Louis Agassiz, 205

Fur-seals, 12, 13, 15, 16, back and front covers (Jan.)

Gemmology, Curiosities of, 18, opp. 20

Gill, Theodore Nicholas, 9

Glass, Blown, Animals of, 399-403

Goldwork, Ancient, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 429

Great Auk, back cover (Mar.)

Groups, Museum, 266-270, 342-347, 405, 408, 430

Hornaday, W. T., 202

iv

Hygiene, Military, 66-71

Indian, dance costumes, 94; Crow, Sun-Dance, 23, 24; Dances, 95, 101, insert opp. 102; 103-115; cover (Mar.)

Indians, Apache, 185, 186, 187; Hopi, 341, 345, 346; Nhambiquara, 62; Parecis, 56, 57, 59, 61; Pueblo, opp. 78; Taos, 78, insert opp. 718; Tewa, 73, 76, 77

Katydid, 26 Lang, Herbert, 203, 378

Macedonia, 293, 295, 296, 297

Mawson, Antarctic expedition, insert opp. 338, cover (Dec.)

Mawson, Sir Douglas, 93

Muir, John, 116, 121

Natural History, 417-420 New Mexico, Ancient Cities of, 389-398

Early Illustrations, 348-355;

Paraguay River, Along the, 48, 51, 52, 58

Planets, 211, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218

Peary, R. E.. 92

Penguins, 206, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 235; 301-305; Penguin group, 430

Portuguese Man-of-war, 199

Putnam, F. W., 314

Red Deer River, Alberta, 279

Rhinoceros, African, 157, 318.

Rondon, Colonel, 34, 43

Roosevelt, Theodore, 34. 35, 36, 38, 41, 43, 45, 46, 49, cover (Jan.)

Santa Isabel, Paramo of, 2, 4, 5, 6,7 Stuart, R. L., 137

Taos, Mountains, 72, insert opp. 78

Taylor, W. S., 90

Telescope, Lowell Observatory, 208, 210

Toad group, back and front cover (April), 162, 164, 165, 166, insert opp. 166; 168-174, 405

Tsimshian, carved wood, 364

Tyrannosaurus 270, 273, 274, 276, back cover (Oct.)

Wandorobo, Family of, 156; Guide, 158 Weismann, August, 188

INDEX OF VOLUME XV

Names of contributors are set

Accessions: Anatomy and Physiology, 32 Archeology, 263, 264 Geology, 85, 86, 88 Herpetology, 32, 264, 317 Mammalogy, 87, 144, 200. 320 Mineralogy, 32 Ornithology, 87, 144, 200 Public Health, 32, 144, 376 Vertebrate Paleontology, 32, 86, 373 AKeELEY, Cart E., Elephant Hunting on Mount Kenya, 322-328; Hunting the African Buf- falo, 151-161 Akeley, Carl E., 261, 276, 431 ALLEN, ArtHuR A., The Paramo of Santa Isabel, 3-8 ALLEN, J. A., Roosevelt’s Through the Brazilian Wilderness,— A Review, 64—65 American Association for Advancement of Science, 85, 86, 319 American Ethnological Society, 263 ANDERSON, MeEtyiLite B., The Conversation of John Muir, 116-121 Andes, Exploring the, 367-371 AnpDREws, Roy C., Hunting Deer in the Adiron- dacks, 404-414 Andrews, Roy C., 320, 375 Anthony, H. E., 83, 144, 200, 259 Antilles, Lesser, Volcanoes of, 254—255 Appointments, 144, 259, 319, 373 Aquarelles, Common Woodland, 167—175 Armies, Guarding Health of, 66-71 Armor, Arms and, 356-362; Riggs Collection of, 84 Astronomy, the Photograph in, 210-219 Audubon Societies, National Association of, 320 Audubon, John James, 31; Eliza M., 31

Baker, George F., 142

Ball, D. S., 259

BayYNEs, Ernest Haro tp, Bird Baths and Drink- ing Pools, 176-184

Baynes, E. H., 431

Bears, 258

Bell, J C., 31

Berkey, Charles P., 30, 197

Bickmore, Albert S., 29, 79-82

Bird Baths and Drinking Pools, 176—184

Bliss, William H., 143

Bourn, W. B., 319

Brazil, Central, Animals of, 34-47

Britton, N. L., 30

Brown, Barnum, Corythosaurus, the New Duck- billed Dinosaur, 427-428; Tyrannosaurus, the Largest Flesh-eating Animal that ever Lived, 271-279

Brown, Barnum, 86, 374

Bryant, W. L., 86

Buffalo, African, Hunting the, 151-161

Burroughs, John, 142, 196

Byerley, Frank M., 34, 144

Cary, William de la Montagne, 320

in small capitals

Caves, European, and Early Man, 236-247

CuapPIin, J. P., Birds of the Congo, 280-292

Chapin, J. P., 148, 196, 431

CHAPMAN, FranK M., Louis Agassiz Fuertes Painter of Bird Portraits, 220-224

Choate, J. A., 29, 142

Churchill, Mrs. William, 320

Clark, B. Preston, 428.

CuLaRK, GEORGE ARCHIBALD, The Making of a Fur-seal Census, 12—17

Climate, Evolution of, 258

Collections: Colombian, 200; Congo, 143, 197; Mexican, 32; Panama, 259; Peruvian, 32, 142, Pampean, 432.

Coles, Russell J., 31, 262

Congo, Birds of, 200—292; 379-388

Conkuin, E. G., Morgan’s Heredity A Review, 194

Conservation, to Dramatize, 21—22

Contents, Table of, 1, 33, 89, 145, 201, 265, 321, Se

Corythosaurus, 427-428

Crampton, Henry E., 432

Crawford, M. D. C., 142

Crocker Land Expedition, 415-416

Curtis, Edward S., 84

Cuyler, Thomas De Witt, 142

Explorer's View of,

and Sex,

Dances, American Indian, 94—102; Indian, in the Southwest, 103-115; Somaikoli, 256—258 Dean, Basurorp, Evolution of Arms and Armor, 356-362

Dean, Bashford, 319

De Angulo, Jaime, 319

Deer, Hunting, 409-414

Dellenbaugh, F. S., Somaikoli Dance at Sichu- movi, 256—258

Deming, E. W., 84, 142, 261

Devilfish, 31

Dickerson, Mary Cyntuia, The Toad Group in the American Museum, 162—166

Dickerson, M. C., 374, 406

Dirmars, Raymonp L., Educational Pictures in Natural History, 26-28

Dodge, Cleveland H., 29, 142, 319

Dodo, 373

Douglas, James, 142

Douglas, R., 264

Motion

Eastman, C. R., Beginnings of American Natural History, 348-355, 417-421

Education, Public, 83, 142, 143, 144, 196, 198, 261

Elephant, Hunting, 322-328

Elliot, Daniel Giraud, 142; Sketch of, 133-141

Emmons, GrorGE T., Tsimshian Stories in Carved Wood, 363-366

Eno, Amos F., 429

Exhibitions, 31, 32, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 197, 319, 320

Expeditions: Australasian-Antarctic, motion pic- tures, 373; Collins-Day South American, 29, 319; Colorado, 258; Crocker Land. 195—

433

Bibliographical

434

196; 415-416; Isthmus of Darien, 259; Roosevelt South American, 48-63; 128, 132, 260; Stefansson, 317, 339-341; Townsend

‘‘Albatross,’’ 376; Congo, 143, 196, 281, 379, 431

Farrand, Livingston, 261

Fisher, G. C., 375

Fishes, Deep Sea, 248-253

Ford, Henry, 142, 196

Fuertes, Louis A., 221—224 Fur-seal Census, Making of, 12—17

Garner, Richard L., 376

Gemmology, Curiosities of, 8-20

Gifts: 85, 86, 142, 143, 196, 259, 262, 264, 317, 320, 374, 428, 429

Gill, Theodore Nicholas, Appreciation of, 9-11

Glass, Blowing, 399-404 .

Gopparp, Puiiny E., Motion Picture Records of Indians, 185-187

Goddard, Pliny E., 86, 261

Goeldi Museum, Para, 144, 260

Gold Art, Ancient, 306-313, 429

Goldfarb, A. J., 374

Granger, Walter, 86

Gratacap, L. P., The Curiosities of Gemmology, 18-20; Memories of Prof. Albert S. Bick- more, 79-82

Gratacap, L. P., 29, 375

Greety, A. W., The Stefansson Expedition of 1913-1915

Gregory, William K., 86

Ground-Sloth, 256

Groups, Museum, 87,143, 162—166, 200, 264, 320,

405-407, 431

Halter, Clarence R., 264

Harper, Francis, 144

Heredity and Sex, Morgan, Review of, 194

High School Biology, 405—407

Hill, Prentice B., 259, 432

Holder, C. F.. 374

Hornaday, William T., 260

Horticultural Society of New York, 374

Hovey, EpmuNnp Oris, Volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles, 254-255

Hovey, E. O., 83

Howe, Marshall A., 30

Hrdli¢ka, A., 198

Hubbard, Thomas H., 264

Hunter, G. W., Reptile and Amphibian Groups in relation to High School Biology, 405-407

Hussaxkor L., Fishes of the Deep Sea, 249-253

Hussakof, L., 86

Ichikawa, F. S., 31

Indians, 31, 84, 85, 88, 142, 143; American, Dances of, 94-102; Crow Sun dance, 23-25; Dances in Southwest, 103-115; Hopi, 342— 347; Motion picture records of, 185-187; Tewa, Home Songs of, 72-78

Iselin, Adrian, 142

Ivins, Mrs. William M., 320

Jennings, Herbert S., 431

Jewett, W. Kennon, 319

Job, Herbert K., 320

Jorre, W. L. G., Geographical Results of the Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition, 128-132

INDEX OF VOLUME XV

Joline, Mrs. A. H., 375

JORDAN, Davin Starr, The Trail of War in Mace- donia, 293-300

Juilliard, A. D., 85, 317

Kligler, I. J., 86 Kroeber, A. L., 26, 41, 320 Kunz, George F., 86, 375, 432

Lane, Hersert, An Explorer’s View of the Congo, 379-388

Lang, Herbert, 259

Lange, Algot, 432

Lanier, Charles, 142

Laysan Island Group, 320

Lectures: 29, 31, 32, 83, 85, 142, 148, 144, 197, 375, 431

Leng, Charles W., 264

Lituiz, Frank R., Appreciation of August Weis- mann, Zodlogist, 189-193

Loans, 375

Longley, George C., 374

Lowett, Percivat, Oxygen and Water on Mars, 207-209

Lowir, Rosert A., American Indian Dances, 94— 101; The Crow Indian Sun Dance, 23-25

Lowie, R. H., 86, 262, 319, 376

Lucas, Freperic A., Appreciation of Theodore Nicholas Gill, 9-11

Lueas, Frederic A., 319

Luschan, Felix von, 29

Lutz, Franx E., Fragments of Spider Lore, 424— 426

Lutz, Frank E., 30, 32, 86, 259, 264, 375

Lydekker, Richard, 263

Macedonia, Trail of War in, 293-300

Mars, Oxygen and Water on, 206-209

Mather, Stephen Tyng, 319

Marruew, W. D., Corythosaurus, the New Duck- - billed Dinosaur, 427-428; Ground-Sloth from a Cave in Patagonia, 256

Matthew, W. D., 86, 258, 319

Mawson, Sir Douglas, 30, 83

Mayer, A. G., 259

MecConne.tu, Burt M., With Stefansson in the Arctic, 122-127

McCormick, Howard, 31, 200, 264

McGregor, J. Howard, 198

Mead, Charles W., 261

Members, 29, 83, 142, 198, 259, 372, 428

Men of the Old Stone Age, H. F. Osborn, 30, 429

Mendelian Heredity, Exhibit, 260

Merriam, John C., 320

Mexico, Antiquities of, Lord Kingsboro, 376

Miuter, L. E., Exploring a Spur of the Andes, 367-371; The Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition, 48-63

Miller, Leo E., 200

MiILuerR, WARREN H., Aquarelles of our Common Woodlands, 167-175

Mills, Ogden, 376

Miner, Roy W., 30, 87, 259

Morgan, J. P., 142

Moriori, Skull, 374

Morris, E. H., 258

Mosquito, Models of, 200

Motion-pictures, Educational, 26-28

Move .ter, H. O., Animals of Blown Glass, 399- 404

INDEX OF VOLUME XV

Mueller, H. O., 259, 376

Muir, John, Conversation of, 116-121

Murie, James R., 264, 320

MoureHy Rosert Cusuman, The Penguins of South Georgia, 225-235; 301-305

Museum Notes, 29-32; 83-88; 142-144; 196— 200; 258-264; 317-320, 372-376, 428-432

Mutchler, A. J., 259, 375

National Academy of Sciences, 372, 431

Natural History, Beginnings of American, 348— 355; 417-421

Netson, N. C., Ancient Cities of New Mexico, 389-394; European Caves and Early Man, 236-247

Nelson, N. C., 30, 86, 258, 261, 320

New Mexico, Ancient Cities of, 389-398; Field work in, 30

New York Academy of Sciences, 30, 83, 144, 198, 200, 258, 261, 263, 374, 375, 432

New York Aquarium, 258

New York Botanical Garden, 317

Nichols, J. T., 30

Norton, Frederick G., 258

Operti, Albert, 143

Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 29, 30, 86, 142, 198, 319, 429

Osburn, Raymond C., 259, 263, 376, 428

Osgood, Wilfred H., 144

PacKaRpD, WinTHROP, To Dramatize Conserva- tion, 21-22

Pacoval, Island, 432

Pampean, collection, Cope, 432

Panama-Pacific Exposition, 83, 262, 264, 319

Pan-American, Congress, 372

Pearson, T. Gitpert, A Valuable New Bird Book, 423

Peary, Robert E., 143, 198

Penguins, South Georgia, 225-235; 301-305

Penguin group, 431

Percy, Lord William, 200

Peruvian, Collections, 32, 142; Metal industries, 262

Porto Rico Survey, 200, 259, 264, 375, 432

Portuguese Man-of-war, 198

Pottery, prehistoric, 432

Publications, Museum, 32, 142, 262, 264

Putnam, Frederic Ward, 314-317

Radin, Paul, 261

435 Reeds, Chester A., 86, 259, 432 Rivers, W. H. R., 262 Roosfvevtt, THroporre, Animals of Central

Brazil, 34-47 Roosevelt, Theodore, 29

Santa Isabel, Paramo of, 3-8

Seton, Ernest Thompson, 32

SHERWOOD, GrorGE H., Note on the Crocker

Land Expedition Ship, 195-196

Skinner, A., 85, 86, 88, 202

Skinner, M. P., 432

SurpHeR, E. C., The Photograph in Astronomy, 211-219

Snethlage, Emilie, 144, 260

Southwestern Anthropological Society, 261

Spider Lore, 424—426

SprinpEN, Herspert J., Ancient Gold Art in the New World, 307-313; Home Songs of the Tewa Indians, 72-78; Indian Dances in the Southwest, 103-115

Spinden, Herbert J., 86

Stead, David G., 144

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 85, 317; with, 122-127

Storage System, 261

In the Arctic

Taxidermy, new process in, 431 Taylor, Will S., 143, 261

Toad Group, 162-166, 405-407 Torre, Carlos de la, 86 Trustees, 30, 142

Tsimshian, Stories, 363-366

Vassar, Anniversary, 374

Watson, F. A., 263

Weismann, August. Appreciation of, 188-193

Whale, Sei, 376

Wild Bird Guests, Baynes, Review of, 423

Wild Life, Protection fund, 260

Wille, N., 30

Winstow, C.-E. A., Guarding the Health of Armies, 66-71

Winslow, C.-E. A., 86, 263, 374

Wisster, Criark, Explorations in the Southwest by the American Museum, 395-398: Fred- eric Ward Putnam, 1839-1915, 314-317; In the Home of the Hopi Indian, 342-347

Wissler, Clark, 86, 320, 432

Young, Mahroni, 31, 200

TAGVS! VLINVS ‘AA TIVA OWV'Vd

THe American Museum JourNAL

VoLuME XV

JANUARY, 1915

NuMBER 1

THE PARAMO OF SANTA ISABEL By Arthur A. Allen

Photographs by the Author and by L. E. Miller

of a few years upon my experi-

ence in the Andes of Colombia, the days spent on the paramos recur most vividly to my mind. The debili- tating weeks in the steaming coastal forests with their parasites and fevers, the long hours in the dugout canoes beneath the blazing vertical sun, the dust of the valley trails, and the lomas with their clouds of locusts pass from me. I forget the interminable silence of the Cloud Forest, its soaking moss and epi- phytes, but as often as memory recurs, comes to me the austere splendor of those stretches of rock and sky, of ridge piled upon ridge, backed by a line of snow and gray cloud and bathed in an atmosphere cool and clean. It was a land of peculiar fascination tome. I recall how we toiled across the paramo of the Valle de Pappas and though at this time so lashed by wind and rain that the trail was visible hardly fifty paces ahead, it still had lost none of its charm. Peaceful as it is during its few months of summer, the Andean paramo is a land of sleet and storm during the rest of the year; indeed

| OOKING through the perspective

Note.— Dr. Arthur A. Allen, a member of the biological staff of Cornell University, was con- nected with the Museum’s expedition in Colombia, from August, 1911 to May, 1912. During this period, in codperation with Mr. Leo E. Miller, he made important collections in the vicinity of the Quindio Trail, and in the little-known region between Popayan and the Valle de Pappas, and San Agustin; also in the Cauca and Atrato val- leys. In the latter region he contracted a severe type of malarial fever which necessitated his re- turn to the United States.

many of the trails even at the equator are closed, and man and beast that attempt to cross are frozen to death.

The paramo of Santa Isabel lies about two days’ journey from Salento, the largest town on the Quindio trail which crosses the central Andes, and on clear days, especially toward dusk, can be seen at several points rising above the forest-capped ridges to an _ altitude between sixteen and seventeen thousand feet. Beyond it and a little to the east

lies the paramo of Ruis, and most magni-

ficent of all, Nevada del Tolima, with its crown of crystal snow gleaming in the rays of the setting sun. Many travelers pass over the trail without ever a glimpse of the snows to the north, seeing only the banks of clouds that obscure even the tops of the moss-forest and hide all but the near distance. The sight of the snows is so unusual even to the natives that with the first lifting of the clouds groups of travelers assemble at the open spots along the trail and discuss the coming of winter.

So it was in the little town of Salento where we happened to be stopping. They manifested great concern over our proposed trip and told us that we must hasten if we would camp on the paramo before the storms set in, when life there would be impossible. So one morning in early September we slung our packs and started for the paramo of Santa Isabel. From Salento the trail to the paramo leads first down into the Boquia

3

Santa Isabel from the Quindio Trail— Cloud Forest in the foreground has more tropical luxuri- ance than the lowland jungles, the trees being burdened with giant vines and they in turn laden

with moss and fern and orchid. timber line at about 12,500 feet

Valley and then follows the river’s meandering course through groves of splendid palms nearly to its source, when it turns abruptly and begins a steep ascent of the mountain side. The palm trees, in scattered groves, continue to nearly nine thousand feet, where the trail begins to zigzag through some _half- cleared country, where the trees have been felled and burned over, and where in be- tween the charred stumps, a few handfuls of wheat have been planted and now wave a golden brown against the black.

And next the Cloud Forest! It is seldom that the traveler’s anticipation of any much heralded natural wonder is realized when he is brought face to face with it. Usually he feels a tinge of dis- appointment and follows it by a close scrutiny of the object before him in search of the grandeur depicted, but not so with the Cloud Forest. It surpasses one’s dreams of tropical luxuriance. It is here rather than in the lowland jungles that nature outdoes herself and crowds every available inch with moss and fern and orchid. 4

Here every twig is a garden

Cloud Forest extends up the mountain side from 9000 feet to

and the moss-laden branches so gigantic that they throw more shade than the leaves of the trees themselves. Giant vines hang to the ground from the hori- zontal branches of the larger trees and in turn are so heavily laden with moss and epiphytes that they form an almost solid wall and present the appearance of a hollow tree trunk fifteen or twenty feet One should pass through this forest during the rainy season to form a true conception of its richness,

in diameter.

although even during the dryest months the variety and abundance of plant life covering every trunk and branch seem beyond belief.

Quite as impressive as is its luxuriance, is its great silence. One walks for hours along its rank trails, sometimes sinking knee-deep in the wet forest mold, and hears no sound. A slight tsip or a buzz of wings in the tree top may tell of the presence of a honey creeper or humming bird, or the weird call of a tinamou or an ant thrush from the dark recesses may startle one, only to leave him the more impressed by the great breathless silence.

THE PARAMO OF

The trail through this forest was new and while perhaps not quite as steep as the old Indian trail, was very difficult in places. Many and led our horses, where the soft mold of the trail seemed insecure and where

times we dismounted

even a slight floundering of the animals might have pitched us down the moun- tain side. Even with such care one

of the mules floundered and before we

SANTA ISABEL 5 change occurs. The trees become

dwarfed, their leaves small and thick, heavily chitinized or covered with thick down, and remind one of the vegetation about. our northern bogs with their Andromeda and Labrador tea. Here too the ground in places is covered with a dense mat of sphagnum, dotted with dwarfed blueberries and cranberries and similar plants which remind one of home.

Looking back at timber line— We had left the tropics of Cloud Forest and come into a tem-

perate region, almost on the equator but more than 12,500 feet above the sea.

shows clouds rolling in at the left

could get to his assistance was rolling and over down the mountain. Fortunately it was still in the forest and one of his packs became wedged in the roots of a tree, holding him until we could get to his release.

This great forest occasionally inter-

over

rupted by clearings, continues for many hours’ travel up the mountain from 9000 to about 12,500 feet, where a sudden

The photograph

A cool breeze greets the traveler, sky appears in place of the great dome of green, and suddenly he steps out upon the open paramo. He has been travel- ing through the densest of forests, seeing but a few hundred paces along the trail and only a few rods into the vegetation on either side; he has grown near-sighted, and even the smallest contours of the landscape have been concealed by the

6 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL

dense forest cover. Suddenly there is thrown before his vision a whole world of mountains. As far as he can see in all directions save behind him, ridge piles upon ridge in never-ending series, until they fuse in one mighty crest which pierces the clouds with its snow-capped

crown. This is the paramo of Santa Isabel.

At this point we dismounted and led our horses along the narrow ridge, for they were not used to the mountains. We looked in vain for the jagged peaks that are so characteristic of our northern

On the paramo of Santa Isabel—The ground is undermined with numerous small rivulets and the strange mullein-like frailejons grow everywhere even up to the edge of the snow, sometimes

reaching a height of ten feet in sheltered places

THE PARAMO OF SANTA ISABEL 7

frost-made mountains. Here even the vertical cliffs did not seem entirely with- out vegetation and as far as we could see with binoculars the brown sedges and the gray frailejons covered the rocks even up to the very edge of the snow. Beneath our feet the soil was springy and as we afterwards found, undermined with in- numerable small rivulets making their way to the stream below, which we could hear even at this distance as it dashed over the boulders and occasionally gleamed in the sun- light. All about us the strange mullein- like frazlejons, as the natives call them, (Espeletia grandi- flora Humb. and Bonpl.), stood up on their pedestals, ten or even fifteen feet .1n height in sheltered spots; down among _ the sedges were many lesser plants similar to our North Ameri- can species: gen- tians, composites, a hoary lupine, a but- tercup, a yellow sor- rel, almost identical with those of the United States. Birds also, several of which proved to be new to science, were numerous, but all were of dull colors and reminded one in their habits of the open country birds of northern United States. A goldfinch hovered about the

unicolor).

frailejons, a gray flycatcher ran along the ground or mounted into the air much like our northern horned larks, an oven- bird flew up ahead of us resembling a meadowlark, a marsh wren scolded from the rank sedges, and almost from under our horses’ hoofs, one of the large Andean snipes sprang into the air with a charac- teristic bleat and went zigzaging away. On a small lake which we now had come to, barren except for a few alge, rode

In the shadow of a frailejon The nest is made entirely from the down of the frailejon leaves and belongs to a slate-colored finch (Pahrygilus

On the paramo the leaves of all plants are either small and horny or heavily covered with down

8 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL

an Andean teal, surprisingly lke our northern gadwall. And so the story goes on. Here almost on the equator but 13,000 feet above the level of the sea, we had left the strangeness of the tropics and come upon a land that was strikingly like our own.

We decided to pitch camp at timber line where there would be wood for cook- ing and so made our way back down the valley to the edge of the trees where we had some difficulty in finding a dry level spot for the tent.

Here we studied and collected for about a week, working up the ridges to 15,000 feet but finding greater abundance of bird life along the dashing stream that flowed cown the valley in which we were camped. There was not however, a great variety of birds and but few species were really common. Mammals too, were scarce, a few tracks of deer and tapir along the edge of the forest and numerous runways of the rabbits in the rank sedges, being almost the only visible signs. Even the smaller rats and mice were scarce, and few came to our traps.

Each night the temperature dropped to freezing, each noon the temperature rose to about 75 degrees Fahrenheit, and each afternoon great white clouds rolled up from the forests below and obscured the landscape. One dared not venture far from camp after three o’clock, for the great mass of anastomosing ridges would easily confuse even the traveler with a compass. In fact one day when return- ing from ap exploring trip to the snow line, the clouds rolled up while we were still four or five miles from camp. Ridge

after ridge disappeared from sight until

soon we could see only the rocks close about us. There was no trail to follow and we were soon unable to recognize any of the features of the landscape that were still visible. For two hours we stumbled along trying to keep track of the number of ridges as we passed them and trying to recall the number passed during the morning, until finally we gave up hope of return that night. Looking about for a spot somewhat sheltered from the raw winds which had already begun to sweep down from the snows above us, a ray of light very far to the left attracted our at- tention and we looked just in time to see the rift in the clouds close again. We knew it must have been reflected from the small lake at the head of the valley in which we were camped and realized that we had been traveling at least an hour in exactly the wrong direction. It was not reluctantly therefore, that we abandoned the thought of beds of

frailejons and made straight for our

little lake. In terrible thirst and fatigue and after many collapses from the great altitude, we were able at last to perceive its dim silver outline, and we knew we were little more than a mile from camp.

This was our first warning to leave the paramo. In a few weeks these ridges would be covered with snow and swept by gales. The clouds and fog would not part for days and life would be unendur- able although even then one would feel the more deeply the grandeur of the elements, and with the mountain tops shut from view, would still know their awe-inspiring presence. With this warning then, we prepared to leave the paramo.

AN APPRECIATION OF THEODORE NICHOLAS GILL By Frederic A. Lucas

HERE died in Washington on September 25, 1914, the man who may well be termed the

Nestor of American zodlogists, not per- haps so much from the fact that he chanced to be a year or so older than his

from his extraordinary

compeers, as grasp of vari- ous branches of zodlogi- eal science. Theodore

Nicholas Gill

vas born in

New York, March 21, 1837. He passed part

of his early life in Brook- lyn, and we infer from his “Reminis- cences of the Apprentice’s nib r ar yo)” that this an- eestor of the Brooklyn In- stitute of Arts and Sciences had much to do with turn- ing his atten- tion from law toward natu- He first became familiar with the Institute that was to be, in 1854, when he was seventeen, and as long as he remained in Brooklyn, made use of its library and collections and was a regular attendant at the meetings of the Lyceum of Natural History, being for a part of the time its secretary.

ral history.

The fact that shells were the objects most readily obtained and preserved by amateurs, and the accessibility of the fine ichthyological library of Mr. J. Carson Breevoort, seem to have been the factors that directed his attention to conchology and ichthyology, although, as noted far- ther on, other factors came into play The

influence of

later.

Baird and of the Smithso- nian Institu- tion led him to Washing- ton in 1868, where for a time he was librarian of the Smithso- nian Institu- Eom fasnd, later, assist- ant librarian of the Library of Congress.

For one who achieved such impor- tant results he did com- paratively little original work, from a natural indolence of body which led him to take life easily,